Université Côte d’Azur
After the French Revolution of 1848, which ended the July Monarchy, the revolutionaries gained complete freedom of the press. This allowed the publication of hundreds of newspapers from March onwards. Although mostly short-lived, they revolted against the bourgeois journalistic order inherited from the previous regime. These new journalists, generally anonymous, issued vigorous criticism and democratic demands, not only for their political discourses but also in terms of the practices and symbols. If this journalistic class struggle quickly ran out of steam due to a lack of resources and the return of repressive measures, it had avant-garde aspects. It constituted a great moment of reflection on journalism and an essential step, little studied by historiography, in the long process of democratization of media in nineteenth century France.